||A plenipotentiary, in the context of full powers, is the person authorised by an instrument of full powers to undertake a specific treaty action.
||A protocol, in the context of treaty law and practice, has the same legal characteristics as a treaty. The term protocol is often used to describe agreements of a less formal nature than those entitled treaty or convention. Generally, a protocol amends, supplements or clarifies a multilateral treaty. A protocol is normally open to participation by the parties to the parent agreement. However, in recent times States have negotiated a number of protocols that do not follow this principle. The advantage of a protocol is that, while it is linked to the parent agreement, it can focus on a specific aspect of that agreement in greater detail.
||provisional application of a treaty that has entered into force
Provisional application of a treaty that has entered into force may occur when a State unilaterally undertakes to give legal effect to the obligations under a treaty on a provisional and voluntary basis. The State would generally intend to ratify, accept, approve or accede to the treaty once its domestic procedural requirements for international ratification have been satisfied. The State may terminate this provisional application at any time. In contrast, a State that has consented to be bound by a treaty through ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or definitive signature generally can only withdraw its consent in accordance with the provisions of the treaty or, in the absence of such provisions, other rules of treaty law. See article 24 of the Vienna Convention 1969.
provisional application of a treaty that has not entered into force
Provisional application of a treaty that has not entered into force may occur when a State notifies the signatory States to a treaty that has not yet entered into force that it will give effect to the legal obligations specified in that treaty on a provisional and unilateral basis. Since this is a unilateral act by the State, subject to its domestic legal framework, it may terminate this provisional application at any time.
A State may continue to apply a treaty provisionally, even after the treaty has entered into force, until the State has ratified, approved, accepted or acceded to the treaty. A State's provisional application terminates if that State notifies the other States among which the treaty is being applied provisionally of its intention not to become a party to the treaty.
See article 25 of the Vienna Convention 1969.
|provisional entry into force
||See entry into force.
|ratification, acceptance, approval
||Ratification, acceptance and approval all refer to the act undertaken on the international plane, whereby a State establishes its consent to be bound by a treaty. Ratification, acceptance and approval all require two steps:
4. The execution of an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval by the Head of State, Head of Government or Minister for Foreign Affairs, expressing the intent of the State to be bound by the relevant treaty; and
5. For multilateral treaties, the deposit of the instrument with the depositary; and for bilateral treaties, the exchange of the instruments between parties.
The instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval must comply with certain international legal requirements (see section 3.3.5 and annex 4).
Ratification, acceptance or approval at the international level indicates to the international community a State's commitment to undertake the obligations under a treaty. This should not be confused with the act of ratification at the national level, which a State may be required to undertake in accordance with its own constitutional provisions, before it consents to be bound internationally. Ratification at the national level is inadequate to establish the State's consent to be bound at the international level.
See articles 2(1)(b), 11, 14 and 16 of the Vienna Convention 1969.